We’ve put together a glossary of common technical terms and phrases.

Term

Definition

Biomarker

A biological substance or chemical that indicates the presence of a disease.

Biopsy

A tissue sample taken from a body organ and analyzed, usually under a microscope, to confirm disease diagnosis.

Carcinoma

A form of cancer that tends to spread.

CIS

Carcinoma in situ. Flat, superficial bladder tumors that tend to grow rapidly and recur.

Clinical trial

A scientific study of a drug or procedure in patients with a specific condition. Results from clinical trials are typically reviewed by medical experts and published in scientific journals.

Cystoscopy

Placement of a thin, flexible tube and camera inside the urine tube (urethra) and bladder.

DNA

Deoxyribonucleic acid. The molecule is a double helix made up of four bases: adenine, cytosine, guanine, thymine. It carries the genetic ‘code’ for the body.

Dysuria

Painful ‘peeing’ (urination).

Gene

A section of DNA that controls the growth and function of body cells.

HCP

Healthcare professional.

Hematuria

Blood in the urine.

Invasive bladder cancer

Cancer that spreads from the bladder lining (urothelium) to deeper layers of the bladder wall.

Macrohematuria

Blood in the urine (visible).

Microhematuria

Blood in the urine (invisible).

Molecular diagnostic test

A test used to identify a disease based on genetic information.

Monitoring

Watching patients for disease worsening or disease return (recurrence).

mRNA

Messenger ribonucleic acid. This is similar to DNA. It uses the genetic ‘code’ to direct protein production inside the body.

Negative predictive value

Proportion of individuals with a negative test result who are correctly diagnosed.

Positive predictive value

Proportion of individuals with a positive test result who are correctly diagnosed.

Prognosis

Prediction of how a patient’s disease will progress.

Recurrence

The return of disease after medical treatment.

RT-qPCR

Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction. A method for multiplying DNA segments, ready for analysis, in a test tube.

Sensitivity

The ability of a test to accurately detect a disease.

Specificity

The ability of a test to exclude a disease if it is not actually present.

Superficial bladder cancer

Cancer affecting the bladder lining (urothelium) only.

Tumor

A mass of extra tissue caused by unusual cell division.

Ureter

The urine tube connecting the kidneys to the bladder.

Urethra

The urine tube connecting the bladder to the outside of the body.

Urinary tract

The entire urinary system (kidneys, ureter, bladder, urethra).

Urine-sampling system

A complete Cxbladder system to collect and store your urine sample ready for sending to a Pacific Edge laboratory.

Urologist

A specialist doctor who treats diseases of the urinary tract and related conditions.

Urothelium

The urine-proof lining along the inside of the urinary tract.

Validation study

A clinical trial that confirms the accuracy, reliability and efficiency of a test.

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