If detected early, bladder cancer can be treated. So, if you have blood in your urine, or if you are worried about bladder cancer, talk to your doctor.

Your doctor may recommend Cxbladder. This is an accurate, easy-to-use urine test that helps rule out bladder cancer. It can give you confidence, reassurance and peace of mind.

Symptoms of bladder cancer

  • Blood in the urine (hematuria) is the most common symptom of bladder cancer.
  • You may be able to see blood (macrohematuria) or it may be invisible (microhematuria).
  • About four in every five people with bladder cancer will have hematuria.
  • Usually, there will be no pain associated with hematuria.
  • Other symptoms you might have include:
    • An increased frequency of, or difficulty with, urinating.
    • An increase in the feeling of urgency to urinate.
    • Pain when urinating.

Just because you have these symptoms does not mean you have bladder cancer. However, you should certainly tell your doctor about them. Your doctor might recommend a Cxbladder test. This will help to confirm whether or not you have bladder cancer. The test result can give you peace of mind.

Risk factors for bladder cancer

Gender: Bladder cancer occurs in both men and women, but the risk is four times greater in men than women.

Age: Bladder cancer is most common in men aged 55+ years.

Smoking history: About half of all people with bladder cancer are current smokers or ex-smokers. The risk is 4-fold greater in current smokers, and 2-fold greater in ex-smokers, than in non-smokers.

Exposure to chemicals in the workplace: Bladder cancer risk can be increased in jobs with long-term exposure to harmful chemicals (especially aromatic amines):1

    • Boot and shoe manufacture and repair
    • Firefighting
    • Foundry work
    • Hairdressing
    • Machining and metal work
    • Painting
    • Petroleum refining
    • Plastic and rubber industry
    • Printing industry
    • Rail and heavy road transport
    • Road paving
    • Textile industry
    • Vehicle maintenance and repair

Other risk factors for bladder cancer


The risk of bladder cancer is two-fold greater in Caucasians than African Americans and Hispanics. Asian individuals have the lowest risk of bladder cancer.

Long-term bladder inflammation

Urinary tract infections, kidney stones and bladder stones may be linked with, but do not cause, bladder cancer

History of bladder cancer

You have an increased risk of developing other urothelial tumors if you have had previous bladder cancer. Your risk of bladder cancer may be increased if a family member has had the condition

Drinking water

Arsenic in drinking water may increase the risk of bladder cancer

Other drugs

Other cancer treatments, such as radiotherapy and cyclophosphamide (Cytoxan®), may increase the risk of bladder cancer. There may be a link between a medicine used to treat diabetes, pioglitazone (Actos®), and bladder cancer.

* In several regions, various generic versions of pioglitazone (Actos) are available.

  • References

    1 Siemiatycki J, Richardson L, Straif K, et al. Listing occupational carcinogens. Environ Health Perspect 2004;112:1447–59.

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